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“A truly excellent timeline of the Country of Cornwall's non English history containg excellent information to educate those who wrongly believe Cornwall is in England. Containg such entries as:

1120 (circa)
Ingulf's Chronicle records Cornwall as a nation distinct from England.

Reginald, Earl of Cornwall, grants a charter to his 'free bugesses of Triueru', possibly during 1173, and he addresses his meetings at Truro to 'All men both Cornish and English' suggesting a continuing differentiation.
Subsequently, for Launceston, Reginald's Charter continues that distinction - 'To all my men, French, English and Cornish'.

and other such entries, this truly excellent website is that of Cornwall Council who have placed their authorship clearly on the site unlike some unidentified bloggers:


By AnGof2012 Posted: January 31, 2013


43 replies

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  • CallingtonFox  |  January 31 2013, 1:13PM

    That's it, Angof, you carry on with your revisionist, unsustainable straw grabbing. You really do not care about the truth.

  • AnGof2012  |  January 31 2013, 7:48PM

    I would hardly call the record contained on an official Cornwall Council website 'revisionist' but if you prefer your unattributed blogs then up to you. The truth is that Cornwall lays next to England just like Wales and that I am Cornish not English and there is nothing you can do about it. Nor indeed can any blogger. Get used to it.

  • Big_Ger  |  January 31 2013, 8:27PM

    Interesting this chronicle, which Angof claims shows some thing from 1120; The Croyland Chronicle (or "Crowland Chronicle") is an important, if not always reliable, primary source for English medieval history, in particular the late fifteenth century. It was written at the Benedictine Abbey of Croyland, in Lincolnshire, England, off and on from 655 to 1486, and its first author claimed to be 'Ingulph' or 'Ingulf' of Croyland'. This author is now referred to as Pseudo-Ingulf. http://tinyurl.com/afzr2ap

  • Big_Ger  |  January 31 2013, 8:28PM

    Reginald de Dunstanville (Reginald FitzRoy, Rainald), Earl of Cornwall (French: Renaud de Donstanville or de Dénestanville) (c. 1110, Dunstanville, Kent, England – 1 July 1175, Chertsey, Surrey, England), High Sheriff of Devon, Earl of Cornwall, was an illegitimate son of Henry I of England and Lady Sybilla Corbet. Reginald had been invested with the Earldom of Cornwall by King Stephen of England, but having afterwards taken up the cause of the Empress Matilda, his sister, he forfeited his lands and honours

  • AnGof2012  |  January 31 2013, 9:08PM

    Stop being dense Bigger. I didn't make this up. It's on the Cornwall Council website. Researched by people with a far better degree of historical knowledge than internet trolls and a two bit guest house owner. Cornwall next to England just like Wales. Cornish not English. And not a thing the Anglophile trolls can do about it!

  • AnGof2012  |  January 31 2013, 9:14PM

    Yep, Celtic Cornwall, next to England, a bit like our Celtic brothers the Welsh. The English? Who? Where? When? By authority of Cornish Council and the Cornish Studies Department: 410 - 1000 Later Roman geography indicates that there are territorial sub-groupings, and what is now Cornwall - distinguished by its Late British name, Cornouia, the land of the Cornovii - may survive as one such sub-group. Welsh sources point to a succession of Dumnonian Kings right through to the 9th century, and a 10th century memorial to King Ricatus stands in the grounds of Penlee House, Penzance. By this time, Cornouia has become Cornubia (Latin), Cernyw (Welsh) and Kernow (Cornish). The British language evolves in Dumnonia into what becomes Cornish. c500-600 English invasion: period of Arthur, Doniert & other Celtic kings; and 'The age of the Saints' 577 Battle of Deorham Down near Bristol results in the separation of the West Welsh (the Cornish) from the Welsh by the advance of the Saxons c600 Earliest Christian church opens at St. Piran's Oratory. By now, the Saxons, have destroyed the remains of Roman civilisation in eastern England, and in the west it is almost forgotten. The Saxons are established as the most important tribe of invaders and they are converting to Roman Christianity. 664 The Synod of Whitby determines that England is again an ecclesiastical province of Rome, with its formal structure of dioceses and parishes. The Celtic Church of Dumnonia is not party to the decision and the Cornish Church remains monastic in nature. c700 English reach Bristol Channel: Celts of Cornwall cut off from Celts of Wales 705 Saxon westward advance is renewed and by 710 Exeter is occupied. c710-711 Ina, King of the West Saxons, attempts to destroy the kingdom of Dumnonia. Until 766 several battles took place, with the Saxons mainly victorious, except in 722 when Roderic, King of the Britons in Wales and Cornwall, repels Adelred, King of Wessex. 787 Viking Danes visit the coasts of Wessex, and form an alliance with the Cornish against the Saxons in 807. 814 The Saxon Ecgberht of Wessex conquers Cornwall but is unsuccessful in subjugating the Cornish people despite having "laid waste the land from east to west'. 825 Cornish send army into Wessex (under attack from Mercians) but to no effect The Cornish rise against Ecgberht only to be defeated at Gafulford (Galford on the River Lew, West Devon) 838 A Cornish-Danish alliance is initially successful in a number of skirmishes with Ecgberht, but is eventually defeated in a pitched battle at Hingston Down, near Callington, the last against the Saxons. 878 Dumgarth, (identified as Doniert in Saxon records), king of the Cornish, is drowned. Doniert's Stone stands in St. Cleer parish. 927 Athelstan, eldest son of Edward the Elder and grandson of Alfred, attacks the south western Celts, forcing their withdrawal from Exeter. There is no record of him taking his campaigns into Cornwall. It seems probable that Hywel, King of the Cornish, agreed to pay tribute to Athelstan, as did Alfred the Great, and thus avoided more attacks and maintained a high degree of autonomy. 931 King Athelstan sets up a bishopric at St. Germans. It lasts until 1042 when the see is united with Credition and is later removed to Exeter, after which Cornwall remains an archdeaconry until 1876. The church of St. Germ**** is finally consecrated in 1261 after its reorganisation by Bishop Bartholomew as an Augustinian priory (1161-84). Eight centuries on, St. Germans displays more of Norman planning than any other Cornish church, although two thirds of them have some Norman traces. 936 Athelstan's settlement fixes the east bank of the Tamar as the boundary between Anglo-Saxon Wessex and Celtic Cornwall.

  • Tolgus  |  January 31 2013, 10:27PM

    As a student of history I would wonder are there any primary sources? Although I do not doubt that Cornwall Council sources do their very best, I would hardly call them unbiased.

  • AnGof2012  |  January 31 2013, 10:40PM

    I would think they were less biaised than a two bit blogsite being cited by someone here.

  • cliffwalker2  |  January 31 2013, 11:47PM

    An Gof If the Earl of Cornwall addressed the burgesses of Truro in 1173 as 'all my men, Cornish and English' it rather suggests that over 800 years ago Cornwall was already a multi-ethnic society, a mix of Saxons and Celts, which is borne out by Prof. Mark Stoyle's earlier research. It explains why, in the 2011 National Census, more than 60% of Cornwall's residents identified themselves as solely English and around 9% as solely Cornish.

  • Big_Ger  |  February 01 2013, 8:38PM

    Rainald is well known as the Earl of Cornwall, called also Rainald de Dunstanville, perhaps indicating the place of his birth. He helped to foment trouble against Stephen in Normandy, then headed a successful rising in the West Country in support of Matilda and was rewarded by her with his earldom in 1141 . Rainald had married a wealthy heiress, Beatrice, daughter of William FitzRichard, 'a man of large estates in Cornwall.' It was not Henry I's policy to establish his *******s on large estates belonging to the crown; rather he used his powers of wardship and marriage to marry them off well. Most of Robert of Gloucester's great domain came to him through his wife and, although Rainald did not marry until five years after Henry's death, he was following a pattern which was well established. Thanks to the conditions of the Anarchy and his support for Matilda and then Henry II, a precedent was set that Rainald had direct control of the country and did not account for it to the exchequer. Much as Henry II must have disliked the condition he no doubt felt it unwise to strip a firm ally of considerable powers, and it was not until Rainald died in 1175, without a male heir, that the king again gained control of the revenues of the county, the earldom reverting to the crown. [The Royal *******s of Medieval England, C. Given-Wilson and A. Curteis, Barnes and Noble Boo ks, 1984

  • CallingtonFox  |  February 01 2013, 9:59PM

    He does not bother with other peoples sources, Big_Ger, he will not see that even the information he has posted above is open to challenge and is very, very simplistic in its scope. One key example of this is the use of the terms Celt and Celtic; some nationalists use being 'Celtic' as way of claiming nationhood. But that fails to accept Celts/Celtic as a term used by others in history to describe a huge range of peoples and not one race.

  • AnGof2012  |  February 01 2013, 10:43PM

    Cornwall, a Celtic nation next to England just like Wales. The Cornish - here long before the English ever arrived and before England was ever imagined.

  • AnGof2012  |  February 01 2013, 10:44PM

    Celtic Cornwall, an authoritative book by Dr. Alan Kent.

  • CallingtonFox  |  February 01 2013, 11:04PM

    Have you read the information provided in my link yet, Angof? I read things you post, or are you afraid of learning something you might not like?

  • Tolgus  |  February 02 2013, 11:11AM

    "The timeline was compiled from books and information available at the Cornish Studies Library."Hardly a comprehensive list of sources and I am confused by the reference to " a two bit blogsite being cited by someone here."?

  • Taxman100  |  February 02 2013, 11:53AM

    Tolgus. The staff/faculty members at the Cornish Studies Library and the Institute of Cornish Studies are totally unbiased. Who said so? Not me!

  • AnGof2012  |  February 02 2013, 12:57PM

    Yes completely unbiaised. Unlike some old Army failure who was a member of an organisation which is SO important it is being cut back again and again (even the murdering SAS). What a wasted life. Cornwall, next to England just like Wales. Cornish not English.

  • Taxman100  |  February 02 2013, 1:39PM

    Angof2012. I would not stoop so low as to reply to your unacceptable, unintelligent, abuse - I leave that to others! http://tinyurl.com/y8j9wa5 By the way, I can distinguish between a ladies hairdressers and a Bank - apparently, some people can't.

  • Tstrunk  |  February 02 2013, 2:35PM

    Hasn't this Island changed since way back in 936? Around 1850 the people began to dismantle the elite of this land those ruling classes have been taken over by democracy, so how is Cornwall ever going to win back this land from those kings and queens as it is all now history? You say this is not England, hold small events in Cornish towns and write on forms, 'I am Cornish' but not a jot has any of this changed the main problem, this is legally seen as part of England. All the Countries of the world see it as England adding the UN and the EU view this as part England. That must be difficult to swallow. What is being done to change this situation? All laws written now that apply to England include Cornwall.

  • Tolgus  |  February 02 2013, 3:53PM

    "The timeline was compiled from books and information available at the Cornish Studies Library" To anyone who is serious about history, its sources and the information gained, the above statement means nothing. "The staff/faculty members at the Cornish Studies Library and the Institute of Cornish Studies are totally unbiased, means nothing, in my opinion. Where did this"timeline" originate? From which "books and information"? I have studied at the Cornish Studies Library, and the range of books and types of information gained are many and varied, and some of these books are flawed, in my opinion. Furthermore, (although I hesitate to use the word biased), I would say that some of these books can be quite narrow in their scope. Only in my opinion, of course.

  • Carvath  |  February 02 2013, 4:18PM

    A bit slim on information as to what you studied there Tolgus, do enlighten us.

  • Big_Ger  |  February 02 2013, 7:56PM

    The Battle of Deorham or Dyrham was fought in 577 between the West Saxons under Ceawlin and Cuthwine and the Britons of the West Country. The location, Deorham, is usually taken to refer to Dyrham in South Gloucestershire. The battle was a major victory for the West Saxons, who took three important cities, Glevum (Gloucester), Corinium (Cirencester) and Aquae Sulis (Bath). The battle is known exclusively from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which gives few details, but it is thought to have been a major engagement.

  • Big_Ger  |  February 02 2013, 8:01PM

    Not all the Celts complied with the Synod of Whitby. The Celtic Church in Dumnonia (what is now Cornwall and Devon) didn't . In 705, Aldhelm, the first Bishop of Sherborne wrote to Geraint of King of Dumnonia rebuking him for adhering to the Celtic Church and asking him to conform to Roman orthodoxy. Apart from a brief period in the 9th century when the Cornish Bishop Kenstec acknowledged the authority of Ceolnoth, (Archbishop of Canterbury, 833-870), it wasn't until 930 that the English King Athelstan conquered the Cornish and brought the remnants of the Kingdom of Dumnonia under English control. The Celtic Church in Cornwall then became remodeled on Saxon lines. Foreshadowing the later dissolution of monasteries under Henry VIII, Celtic monasteries were dissolved and some were reconstituted as collegiate churches as at St Michael's Mount and St Buryan in Cornwall. In the heyday of Celtic Monasticism in Cornwall there were somewhere in the the region of 98 monastic foundations. We see evidence of this in Cornish place names starting with Lan, signifying a religious/monastic enclosure.

  • MapSerpren  |  February 02 2013, 11:16PM

    An extremely interesting read by a very well regarded historian from elsewhere than Kernow is 'The Saxon and Norman Kings' by Christopher Brooke. First published in 1963 and still in print, it shows clearly that England does not historically include Cornwall or Wales and the excellent illustration by Mr. Brookes on page 85 in a chapter entitles 'The Small Kingdoms' show Cornwall, England and Wales. England is subdivided into the earlier entities which do not include Cornwall or Wales (or indeed Scotland) I also have an excellent book by Professor Mark Stoyle which fairly much contains the same detail. Professor Stoyle, a renowned English academic refers to Kernow as the 'fourth nation' of Britain.

  • AnGof2012  |  February 02 2013, 11:56PM

    You say you are not going to stoop so low as to reply Taxman100, then you do! Strange types these retired colonels. Have a read and weep. Your army and its so called 'special' forces are going fast thankfully: http://tinyurl.com/adu58er Wear your white poppy with pride!

  • polgooth  |  February 03 2013, 1:30AM

    All very interesting. Just a small point, the UN does not recognise England. It is the UK that represents interests and pays subscriptions,the same with, although in a slightly more diluted form, for the EU. Brgds

  • CallingtonFox  |  February 03 2013, 1:16PM

    "....the UN does not recognise England. It is the UK that represents interests" And the United Nations lists us as 'The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland'. Great Britain is defined as the Union of Scotland and England (Wales included with England historically).

  • Big_Ger  |  February 03 2013, 8:35PM

    The extent of West Saxon territory at the start of Ine's reign is fairly well known. The upper Thames valley on both sides of the river had long been the territory of the Gewisse, though Cædwalla had lost territory north of the river to the kingdom of Mercia before Ine's accession. To the west, Ceawlin of Wessex is known to have reached the Bristol Channel one hundred years before. The West Saxons had since expanded further down the southwestern peninsula, pushing back the boundary with the British kingdom of Dumnonia, which was probably roughly equivalent to modern Devon and Cornwall. In 710, Ine and Nothhelm fought against Geraint of Dumnonia, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; John of Worcester states that Geraint was killed in this battle. Ine's advance brought him control of what is now Devon, the new border with Dumnonia being the river Tamar. The Annales Cambriae, a 10th century chronicle, records that in 722 the British defeated their enemies at the Battle of Hehil. The "enemies" must be Ine or his people, but the location is unidentified; historians have suggested locations in both Cornwall and Devon. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, pp. 72–73.

  • Big_Ger  |  February 03 2013, 8:44PM

    Despite the loss of dominance, Egbert's military successes fundamentally changed the political landscape of Anglo-Saxon England. Wessex retained control of the south-eastern kingdoms, with the possible exception of Essex, and Mercia did not regain control of East Anglia. Egbert's victories marked the end of the independent existence of the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex. The conquered territories were administered as a subkingdom for a while, including Surrey and possibly Essex. Although Æthelwulf was a subking under Egbert, it is clear that he maintained his own royal household, with which he travelled around his kingdom. Charters issued in Kent described Egbert and Æthelwulf as "kings of the West Saxons and also of the people of Kent." When Æthelwulf died in 858 his will, in which Wessex is left to one son and the southeastern kingdom to another, makes it clear that it was not until after 858 that the kingdoms were fully integrated. Mercia remained a threat, however; Egbert's son Æthelwulf, established as king of Kent, gave estates to Christ Church, Canterbury, probably in order to counter any influence the Mercians might still have there. In the southwest, Egbert was defeated in 836 at Carhampton by the Danes, but in 838 he won a battle against them and their allies the West Welsh at Hingston Down in Cornwall. The details of Anglo-Saxon expansion into Cornwall are quite poorly recorded, but some evidence comes from place names. The river Ottery, which flows east into the Tamar near Launceston, appears to be a boundary: south of the Ottery the placenames are overwhelmingly Cornish, whereas to the north they are more heavily influenced by the English newcomers. Payton, Philip (2004). Cornwall: A History. Cornwall Editions

  • Big_Ger  |  February 05 2013, 6:41PM

    Since the 19th century, there has been controversy concerning a certain Huwal, "King of the West Welsh".This character only appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 927, accepting King Athelstan of Wessex as his overlord. 'West Wales' was an old term for Dumnonia or Cornwall, but may also refer to present day West Wales, then generally known as Deheubarth, where Hywel Dda was king. Other 'kings', such as Ricatus, mentioned on memorial stones may have ruled more localised regions.

  • Big_Ger  |  February 05 2013, 6:43PM

    according to William of Malmesbury, Æthelstan then went on to expel the Cornish from Exeter, fortify its walls and fix the Cornish boundary at the River Tamar. However, this account is regarded sceptically by historians as Cornwall had by then been at least nominally under English rule for a hundred years. By Æthelstan's day it was securely under his control, and he was able to establish a new Cornish see and appoint its first bishop. His triumph led to a period of peace in the north which lasted seven years. He thus became the first king of all the Anglo-Saxon peoples, and in effect over-king of Britain. His Crowned Bust coinage of 933–938 was the first Anglo-Saxon coinage to show the king crowned, and on both coins and his charters he claimed the title Rex totius Britanniae, King of the Whole of Britain.

  • AnGof2012  |  February 05 2013, 10:01PM

    Yep, Cornwall next to England just like Wales. Cornish not English!

  • Big_Ger  |  February 07 2013, 8:43AM

    1204 Grant to William de Boterell of a market for Talkar (Talkarne in Minster) William de Botterell was born circa 1165 at of Linton, Cambridgeshire, England. He married Avisa de Whitmore, daughter of Arnulf de Whitmore 1221 Cornwall is acknowledged as having the continuing right to appoint its own vicecomitatus (sheriff). Richard of Cornwall (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (from 1225 to 1243), 1st Earl of Cornwall (from 1225) and German King (formally "King of the Romans", from 1257). He was born 5 January 1209 at Winchester Castle, the second son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême. He was made High Sheriff of Berkshire at the age of only eight, was styled Count of Poitou from 1225 and in the same year, at the age of sixteen, his brother King Henry III gave him Cornwall as a birthday present, making him High Sheriff of Cornwall. 1235-1237 Cornish militia fight against the Scots Celtic solidarity at its finest. 1240 The Franciscan Friary at Bodmin is founded. By French and Italian monks. 1259 St. Mary's Church, Truro is dedicated by Bishop Bronscombe. Walter de Bronescombe, Bishop of Exeter, makes a tour of Cornwall dedicating nineteen parish churches which had been rebuilt or remodelled. Branscombe was born in Exeter about 1220. He held a prebend in of St Nicholas's College at Wallingford Castle, as well as a number of other benefices. He also was archdeacon of Surrey. In 1250, he acted as King Henry III of England's representative at the papal curia, and was appointed the king's proctor the next year. Besides being a royal clerk, he was often named as a papal chaplain also. Before 1254 he became a canon of Exeter Cathedral

  • AnGof2012  |  February 07 2013, 10:11AM

    Cornwall next to England just like Wales. Cornish not English. Young patriotic brave Cornish activists here: https://http://tinyurl.com/83l44n7

  • Big_Ger  |  February 07 2013, 10:30AM

    c. 1280-1290 Mappa Mundi [in Hereford Cathedral] shows the four constituent parts of Britain as England, Scotland, Wales and Cornwall. Does it show Cornwall as a separate country from England? No, it doesn't. This mappa mundi does indeed mark the area at Lands End as Cornubia. The map marks Cornwall in red and in a distinct script, the same colour and script used to mark Anglia, Scotia, Wallia, and Hibernia on the map. The same colour and script are also used on the map to mark Lindsey, Northumberland, and Lothian, for example – and Snowdon. 1284 Earl Edmund refutes the King of England's claim to jurisdiction over Cornwall, and again similarly in 1290. Edmund was born at Berkhamsted Castle on 26 December 1249, the second and only surviving son of Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall and his wife Sanchia of Provence, daughter of Ramon Berenguer, Count of Provence, and sister of Henry III's queen, Eleanor. On 13 October, on the feast of Edward the Confessor, Edmund was knighted by Henry III at Westminster Abbey and invested with his father's honours and titles as Earl of Cornwall. Edmund continued to style himself 'Edmund of Almain', or 'Edmund earl of Cornwall, son of Richard the king of Germany. In May 1296 the king entrusted prisoners captured in the Scottish campaign to Edmund's castles at Wallingford and Berkhampsted, it is said he also ordered Edmund's treasure be moved from Berkhampsted to London. In 1297 Edmund was summoned to Gascony and was absent during the crisis between the king and barons. Later that year Edmund promised the output of his mines in Cornwall and Devon as repayment for 7,000 marks the king owed the men of Bayonne, and served as councillor to the king's son, Edward, who was governing England during the kings absence. 1305 Stannary Charter re-affirms the Crown's right of pre-emption, its first call upon the tin mined in Cornwall and Devon. The importance of tin mining during this period is clear from the Stannary Charter of 1305. This re-affirmed the Crown's right of "pre-emption", (the crown had "first call" upon the tin mined in Cornwall). This was confirmed politically when in 1338 Edward the Black Prince, (eldest son of Edward III) was created the first Duke of Cornwall.

  • Big_Ger  |  February 08 2013, 8:57AM

    1307 The Tinners Charter is granted by Edward 1 This is a list of charters promulgated by kings of England that specifically relate to Cornwall, which was incorporated into the Kingdom of England late in the Anglo-Saxon period. In the 9th and 10th centuries, the kings of Wessex became the rulers of Cornwall, and after a period of independence during the wars with the Danes, this rule by the kings of England became permanent. The charters below relate either to the tin mines of Cornwall and Devon or to the Earldom or Duchy of Cornwall. The stannary charters are dated between 1201 and 1508, the others between 1231 and 1338. 1322 After Edward III's unpopular choice of Piers Gaveston to be Earl of Cornwall, and his execution on the orders of the Earl of Lancaster in 1312, a number of the Cornish gentry support Lancaster in rebelling against the King. Lancaster is defeated at Boroughbridge and executed. Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall (c. 1284 – 19 June 1312) was an English nobleman of Gascon origin, and the favourite of King Edward II of England. On 6 August 1307, less than a month after succeeding, Edward II made Piers Gaveston Earl of Cornwall. Edmund FitzAlan Earl of Lancaster was born in the Castle of Marlborough, in Wiltshire, on 1 May 1285.[1] He was the son of Richard FitzAlan, 2nd Earl of Arundel, and his wife, Alice of Saluzzo, daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo in Italy. The battle of Boroughbridge saw the total defeat of rebel forces under the Earl of Lancaster. 1338 Edward the Black Prince, eldest son of Edward III, is created first Duke of Cornwall Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and his wife Philippa of Hainault as well as father to King Richard II of England. Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. He was created Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337, the first creation of an English duke. When in England, Edward's chief residence was at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire) or Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire. 1346 Cornish archers, conspicuous for their long bows and accurate shooting, distinguish themselves at the Battle of Crecy The Battle of Crécy (occasionally written in English as "Battle of Cressy") took place on 26 August 1346 near Crécy in northern France. It was one of the most important battles of the Hundred Years' War because of the combination of new weapons and tactics used. The English had about 2000 men at arms, 500 light horse, around 5200 longbowmen and 1500 Welsh and Cornish knifemen, they also brought three crude cannon along. They were divided into three divisions, each of which had a core of dismounted men at arms flanked by archers. The right was under Edward's son the Black Prince, sixteen years old and in his first battle, he commanded 800 men at arms and 2000 archers, 500 Welsh knifemen stood behind the men at arms of theis division. The left under the Earl of Northampton had 500 men at arms and 1200 longbowmen. King Edward himself commanded the reserve of 700 men at arms, 2000 longbowmen, the 500 light horse and 1000 knifemen. 1347 777 men from Fowey ("Gallants of Fowey") fight at the Siege of Calais The Siege of Calais began in 1346, towards the beginning of what would later be called the Hundred Years' War. Edward III of England, who was at the time claiming dominion over France as well, defeated the French navy at Sluys in 1340, then went on to make raids throughout Normandy, culminating at the Battle of Crécy in 1346. Calais fell under English control, and remained as such until 1558, providing a foothold for English raids in France. Calais was finally lost by the English monarch Mary I.

  • AnGof2012  |  February 08 2013, 11:10AM

    Yep, all good stuff Bigger. All proof that Cornwall lays next to England just like Wales. Cornish not English. You can't be both!

  • Big_Ger  |  February 08 2013, 11:16AM

    Not really, the time line proves; the earls of Cornwall were English, that all the charters of Cornwall were granted by English kings, that the Cornish have always fought for their English army, that Cornwall is an English county, that Cornwall was given as a gift by an English king to an English prince as a present, etc. I'll carry on showing so, shall I?

  • Dyhanow  |  February 08 2013, 11:48AM

    Ranolph Higden in his chronicle of history and theology - 'Polychronicon' - Circa 1342, wrote... "...though Alfred of Beverly has said previously that Cornwall is not classified amongst the shires of England, it is quite proper to classify it amongst them, because it belongs not to Wales or Scotland, but is in England, adjoining Devonshire."

  • Gurnards_Head  |  February 08 2013, 12:43PM

    SOME TRULY EXCELLENT CUT AND PASTE WORK HERE... MY OH MY WHAT A MAGNIFICENT BUNCH OF HIGHLY ENERGISED LITTLE ARMCHAIR WARRIORS ARE HERE ASSEMBLED SPOUTING HOT AIR AS THEY FIGHT THE THIRD BATTLE OF GOONGUMPUS CIRCA 2013 FROM THE CENTRALLY HEATED COMFORT OF THEIR SITTING ROOMS. In the meantime the fabric of Cornwall continues to collapse around our ears and second homes proliferate, yer doing a great job me Dears, keep it up you bunch of Muppets. Kernow needs you all like it needs a hole in its head. MY DUKE HAS A BIGGER BANANA THAN YOUR COUNT SPRINGS TO MIND, JUST GROW UP PEOPLE.

  • Big_Ger  |  February 08 2013, 9:10PM

    1470's 'Piracy' against Breton, Norman and Spanish vessels (what would now be termed mutual reprisals) is rife along Channel coast . The 'Fowey gallants' are particularly notable. Determined to put an end to this, Edward IV despatches a commission to Cornwall to 'arrest all mariners, masters, pirates, victuallers of ships' of Fowey, Bodinnick, and Polruan. The independent Cornish seafarers and their ships are removed to England and placed in custody. One Harrington is executed. 1497 Cornish uprising against Henry VII's taxation to pay for his war against the Scots. An army some 15,000 strong marched into Devon, attracting support in terms of provisions and recruits as they went. Apart from one isolated incident at Taunton, where a tax commissioner was killed, their march was 'without any slaughter, violence or spoil of the country'. From Taunton, they moved on to Wells, where they were joined by their most eminent recruit, James Touchet, the seventh Baron Audley, a member of the old nobility and an accomplished soldier. At this point, having come so far, there seems to have been some questioning of what exactly should be done. Flamank conceived the idea of trying to broaden the rising; to force the monarch into concessions by mobilising wider support for the Cornishmen. He proposed that they should head for Kent, 'the classic soil of protests', the home of the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and Jack Cade's rebellion, to rally the volatile men of Kent to their banner. It was a subtle and ambitious strategy—but sadly misinformed. Although the Scottish War was as remote a project to the Kentishmen as to the Cornish, they not only declined to offer their support but went so far as to offer resistance under their Earl. Sadly disillusioned, the Cornish army retreated and some of the men quietly returned to their homes. The remainder, let go the pretence of acting against the King's ministers alone - they were prepared to give battle against the King himself. The two Royal divisions attacked the Cornish precisely as planned and, as Bacon succinctly put it: being ill-armed and ill-led, and without horse or artillery, they were with no great difficulty cut in pieces and put to flight. Estimates of the Cornish dead range from 200 to 2000 and a general slaughter of the broken army was well under way when An Gof gave the order for surrender. He fled but only got as far as Greenwich before being captured. The less enterprising Baron Audley and Thomas Flamank were taken on the field of battle

  • Big_Ger  |  February 08 2013, 9:11PM

    1508 'Charter of Pardon' granted by Henry VII The Cornish Stannaries were suspended in 1496, prior to the Cornish Rebellion of 1497. Henry VII restored them in return for a payment from the tin miners of the sum, enormous at the time, of £1000, to support his war on Scotland. (More Celtic solidarity there!)

  • Big_Ger  |  February 09 2013, 8:44AM

    1535 Polydore Vergil's Anglica Historia describes Britain as being made up of "Scots, Welsh, English and Cornish people" Vergil drew on an impressively wide range of sources for his work, including published books and oral testimony. He claimed to have been diligent in collecting materials, and to have drawn on the work of foreign as well as English historians. For this reason, he remarked, the English, Scots and French would find things reported in his pages far differently from the way they were used to hearing them within their own countries. The whole Countrie of Britaine...is divided into iiij partes ; wherof the one is inhabited of Englishmen, the other of Scottes, the third of Wallshemen, and the fowerth of Cornishe people. Which all differ emonge them selves, either in tongue, either in manners, or ells in lawes and ordinaunces." 1539-45 Henry VIII creates a chain of fortifications along the south coast, including the castles of Pendennis and St. Mawes Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. 1549 Uprising in protest against the imposition by Edward VI of the use of the Book of Common Prayer in English. This spells the end for the use of Cornish language. The Prayer Book Rebellion, Prayer Book Revolt, Prayer Book Rising, Western Rising or Western Rebellion was a popular revolt in Cornwall and Devon, in 1549. In 1549 the Book of Common Prayer, reflecting the theology of Protestantism while keeping much of the appearance of the old rites, replaced, in English, the four old liturgical books in Latin. The change was unpopular, particularly in areas of traditionally Roman Catholic religious loyalty, for example, in Devon and Cornwall The loss of life in the prayer book rebellion and subsequent reprisals as well as the introduction of the English prayer book is seen as a turning point in the Cornish language, for which — unlike Welsh — a complete bible translation was not produced.

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